orth Texas foster home. After separate trials the Atkinson couple would be sentenced to life in prison in 2002, Barbara on 29 January, and Kenneth on 12 December.
2001 Search warrant required for Thermovision.       ^top^
     Police violate the 4th Amendment of the US Constitution if they use a heat-sensing device to peer inside a home without a search warrant, the Supreme Court rules 5-4, in Kyllo v. US, 99-8508, throwing out Danny Lee Kyllo's conviction for growing marijuana.
      Kyllo was arrested in January 1992 and charged with growing marijuana at his home in Florence, Oregon. Police had been investigating his neighbor, but they focused on him after they trained a thermal imaging device on his home and saw signs of high-intensity lights. Using those images, electricity records and an informant's tip, police got a warrant and searched Kyllo's home, finding more than 100 marijuana plants.
     In 2000 the Supreme Court ruled that police must get bus passengers' consent or a search warrant before squeezing their luggage to see if drugs might be inside.
      The court also requires a warrant to put a "bug" in someone's home or in a telephone booth.
      But the justices have said police do not need a warrant to go through someone's garbage left on the curb, fly over a backyard to see what is on the ground, or put a beeper on a car to make it easier to follow.
— - On the Net: Supreme Court: http://www.supremecourtus.gov
2001 The US Supreme Court rules 6-3 in The Good News Club v. Milford Central Schools, 99-2036, that a New York public school district must let a Christian youth group hold meetings in public schools after class hours for grade-school children to pray and study the Bible.
2001 Invictus, poem by William Ernest Henley (1849–1903)
     It is distributed in printed form for McVeigh, in lieu of spoken last words just before his execution for the 19 April 1995 Oklahoma City bombing. This is how he chooses to use for the last time the undeserved and grossly overextended attention that the media give even to the minutest irrelevant aspects of this case.
Out of the night that covers me,
  Black as the Pit from pole to pole,
I thank whatever gods may be
  For my unconquerable soul

In the fell clutch of circumstance
  I have not winced nor cried aloud.
Under the bludgeonings of chance 
  My head is bloody, but unbowed.
Beyond this place of wrath and tears 
  Looms but the Horror of the shade,
And yet the menace of the years 
  Finds, and shall find, me unafraid.

It matters not how strait the gate, 
  How charged with punishments the scroll,
I am the master of my fate:
  I am the captain of my soul.
1998 TV Guide becomes multiplatform juggernaut       ^top^
      By the late 1990s, the ever-popular TV Guide seemed as though it had little territory left to conquer: with a national circulation of roughly thirteen million people, the erstwhile programming guide had long since been the largest magazine in America. But, on this day in 1998, TV Guide perhaps becomes even more dominant, as its parent company, Rupert Murdoch's News Corp., signs a stunning $2 billion deal to merge the magazine with Tele-Communications, Inc. (TCI).
      By joining forces with TCI, owner of the oft-visited Prevue Channel, a program guide for cable television, the News Corp. positioned TV Guide to become a cross-platform force in the rapidly converging communications industry. The deal left officials for both TCI and the News Corp. feeling giddy about 's future: TCI honcho Gary Howard pledged that the magazine would be a "very formidable force," while Anthea Disney, chief of the News America Publishing Group, dubbed TV Guide a "multiplatform juggernaut."
1996 Insurance Web site from Intuit       ^top^
      Intuit says it will launch an insurance Web site. The site, an addition to the Quicken financial Web site, which already offers retirement planning tools and other financial content, will help consumers calculate how much insurance they need and allow them to get quotes and to buy policies over the Internet. Consumers proved very interested in sites that allowed them to research and comparison shop for complicated products like insurance, mortgages, and cars.
1995 IBM buys Lotus       ^top^
      IBM buys Lotus Development Corporation after a week of price negotiation. IBM had launched a hostile takeover attempt on June 5, and the two companies signed an agreement on June 11 to finalize the deal. Lotus had achieved great success with its spreadsheet, Lotus 1-2-3, and its enormously popular Lotus Notes software, which let workers on different computers collaborate on the same document. IBM's takeover of Lotus puts IBM head-to-head with Microsoft, which is about to launch a collaboration and networking software product called Microsoft Exchange.
1991 Microsoft releases MS DOS 5.0
1989 China issues warrant for Tiananmen dissident
      In the wake of the Tiananmen Square massacre on 04 June, China issues a warrant for a leading Chinese dissident who had taken refuge in the US embassy in Beijing. The diplomatic standoff lasted for a year, and the refusal of the United States to hand the dissident over to Chinese officials was further evidence of American disapproval of China's crackdown on political protesters. In April and May 1989, hundreds of thousands of protesters gathered in Beijing to call for greater political democracy in communist China. On 04 June Chinese soldiers and police swarmed into the center of protest activity, Tiananmen Square, killing hundreds and arresting thousands. The Chinese government used this brutal crackdown as a pretext for issuing an arrest warrant for Fang Lizhi, an internationally respected astrophysicist and leading Chinese dissident. Although Fang had not participated in the Tiananmen Square protests, he had been a consistent advocate of greater political democracy and a persistent critic of government policies. In February 1989, more than one hundred Chinese security personnel forcibly prevented Fang from meeting with visiting President George Bush.
      In the June arrest warrant, Fang and his wife, Li Shuxian, were charged with "committing crimes of counter-revolutionary propaganda and instigation." Fang and Li immediately took refuge in the US embassy. Chinese officials demanded that the American government hand over the pair, but the US refused. Almost exactly one year later, Fang and Li were given free passage out of the country and they left the US embassy for the first time since June 1989. The action was part of a wider effort by the Chinese government to repair some of the international damage done to its reputation in the wake of the Tiananmen Square incident. In addition to Fang and Li, hundreds of other political prisoners were also released. Fang and Li traveled to the United States and took up residence. Fang continued his dissident activities against the Chinese government and taught in both America and Great Britain. The incident indicated that feelings about what had occurred in Tiananmen Square ran high, both in the United States and China. For America, the brutal attack on the protesters repulsed most people and led Congress to pass economic sanctions against the Chinese government. In China, the refusal to hand over Fang and the US criticisms of what the Chinese government considered to be a purely internal matter generated a tremendous amount of resentment. The issue of human rights in China continued to be a major issue in relations between the US and China throughout the 1990s and into the 21st century.
1987 Margaret Thatcher (Conservative) is first British PM in 160 years to win 3rd consecutive term
1986 US Supreme Court reaffirms right to abortion       ^top^
      In Thornburg v. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, by a narrow margin, the US Supreme Court votes to strike down a Pennsylvania state law severely restricting abortion, thus holding up the high court’s controversial 1973 ruling that legalized abortion. On 22 January 1973, the Supreme Court ruled in Roe v. Wade that women, as part of their constitutional right to privacy, could terminate a pregnancy during its first two trimesters. Only during the last trimester, when the fetus could survive outside the womb, would states be permitted to regulate abortion in a healthy pregnancy. The historic and controversial ruling, essentially reversing a century of anti-abortion legislation in the United States, was the result of a call by some US women for control over their own reproductive processes.
      Although defended by the Supreme Court on several occasions, the legalization of abortion became a divisive and intensely emotional public issue. The debate intensified during the 1980s, and both pro-choice (pro-abortion) and pro-life (anti-abortion) organizations strengthened their membership and political influence. Republican presidents Ronald Reagan and George Bush used their executive authority to establish abortion clinic guidelines that restricted free practice of the procedure.
      However, in 1986, and again in 1989 and 1992, the Supreme Court narrowly reaffirmed the decision, and in 1993, President Bill Clinton, a Democrat, overturned his predecessors’ anti-abortion directives within days of taking office. In recent years, some opponents of abortion rights have increasingly turned to violent methods in their campaign to make abortion illegal again, while proponents of abortion have tried to brand the whole pro-life movement as terrorristic.
1982 Israel and Syria stop fighting in Lebanon.
1982 Más de 800'000 personas se manifiestan en Nueva York en favor de la paz.
1977 Dutch marines rescued hostages from a Moluccan held train in Holland
1972 El filólogo Fernando Lázaro Carreter ingresa en la Real Academia Española de la Lengua.
1967 Six-Day war ends       ^top^
      On 05 June 1967, Israel responded to a steady build-up of Arab forces along its borders by launching simultaneous attacks on Egypt, Syria, and Jordan. When the Six-Day War ends on 11 June 1967, Israel suddenly has control of territory three times its original size. However, the true fruits of victory come in claiming the old city of Jerusalem from Jordan. Many weep while bent in prayer at the Wailing Wall.
      The Six-Day War between Israel and its Arab neighbors ends with a United Nations-brokered cease-fire. The outnumbered Israel Defense Forces achieved a swift and decisive victory in the brief war, rolling over the Arab coalition that threatened the Jewish state and more than doubling the amount of territory under Israel's control. The greatest fruit of victory lay in seizing the Old City of Jerusalem from Jordan; thousands of Jews wept while bent in prayer at the Second Temple's Western Wall.
      Increased tensions and skirmishes along Israel's northern border with Syria were the immediate cause of the third Arab-Israeli war. In 1967, Syria intensified its bombardment of Israeli settlements across the border, and Israel struck back by shooting down six Syrian MiG fighters. After Syria alleged in May 1967 that Israel was massing troops along the border, Egypt mobilized its forces and demanded the withdrawal of the UN Emergency Force from the Israel-Egypt cease-fire lines of the 1956 conflict. The UN peacekeepers left on 19 May, and three days later Egypt closed the Strait of Tiran to Israeli shipping. On 30 May Jordan signed a mutual defense treaty with Egypt and Syria, and other Arab states, including Iraq, Kuwait, and Algeria, sent troop contingents to join the Arab coalition against Israel.
      With every sign of a pan-Arab attack in the works, Israel's government on 04 June authorized its armed forces to launch a surprise preemptive strike. On 05 June, the Six-Day War began with an Israeli assault against Arab air power. In a brilliant attack, the Israeli air force caught the formidable Egyptian air force on the ground and largely destroyed the Arabs' most powerful weapon. The Israeli air force then turned against the lesser air forces of Jordan, Syria, and Iraq, and by the end of the day had decisively won air superiority.
      Beginning on 05 June, Israel focused the main effort of its ground forces against Egypt's Gaza Strip and the Sinai Peninsula. In a lightning attack, the Israelis burst through the Egyptian lines and across the Sinai. The Egyptians fought resolutely but were outflanked by the Israelis and decimated in lethal air attacks. By June 8, the Egyptian forces were defeated, and Israel held the Gaza Strip and the Sinai to the Suez Canal.
      Meanwhile, to the east of Israel, Jordan began shelling its Jewish neighbor on 05 June, provoking a rapid and overwhelming response from Israeli forces. Israel overran the West Bank and on 07 June captured the Old City of East Jerusalem. The chief chaplain of the Israel Defense Forces blew a ram's horn at the Western Wall to announce the reunification of East Jerusalem with the Israeli-administered western sector.
      To the north, Israel bombarded Syria's fortified Golan Heights for two days before launching a tank and infantry assault on 09 June. After a day of fierce fighting, the Syrians began a retreat from the Golan Heights on 10 June. On 11 June a UN-brokered cease-fire takes effect throughout the three combat zones, and the Six-Day War was at an end. Israel had more than doubled its size in the six days of fighting.
      The UN Security Council called for a withdrawal from all the occupied regions, but Israel declined, permanently annexing East Jerusalem and setting up military administrations in the occupied territories. Israel let it be known that Gaza, the West Bank, the Golan Heights, and the Sinai would be returned in exchange for Arab recognition of the right of Israel to exist and guarantees against future attack. Arab leaders, stinging from their defeat, met in August to discuss the future of the Middle East. They decided upon a policy of no peace, no negotiations, and no recognition of Israel, and made plans to zealously defend the rights of Palestinian Arabs in the occupied territories.
      Egypt, however, would eventually negotiate and make peace with Israel, and in 1982 the Sinai Peninsula was returned to Egypt in exchange for full diplomatic recognition of Israel. Egypt and Jordan later gave up their respective claims to the Gaza Strip and the West Bank to the Palestinians, who beginning in the 1990s opened "land for peace" talks with Israel. A permanent Israeli-Palestinian peace agreement remains elusive, as does an agreement with Syria to return the Golan Heights.
1967 Race riot in Tampa Florida; National Guard mobilizes
1963 University of Alabama desegregated       ^top^
      Facing federalized Alabama National Guard troops, Alabama Governor George Wallace ends his blockade of the University of Alabama in Tuscaloosa, and allows two African-American students to enroll.
      George Wallace, one of the most controversial politicians in US history, was elected governor of Alabama in 1962 under an ultra-segregationist platform. In his 1963 inaugural address, Wallace promised his white followers: "Segregation now! Segregation tomorrow! Segregation forever!" When African-Americans students attempted to desegregate the University of Alabama in June of 1963, Alabama’s new governor, flanked by state troopers, literally blocked the door of the enrollment office. However, the US Supreme Court had declared segregation unconstitutional nearly a decade before in 1954’s Brown v. Board of Education, and the federal government had adopted aggressive tactics in dealing with opponents of integration. On 10 June, employing his executive authority, President John F. Kennedy federalized National Guard troops, and deployed them to the University of Alabama to force its desegregation.
      On 11 June Governor Wallace yields to the federal pressure, and two African-American students — Vivian Malone and James A. Hood — successfully enroll. In September of the same year, Wallace again attempted to block the desegregation of an Alabama public school — this time Tuskegee High School in Huntsville — but President Kennedy again employed his executive authority and federalized National Guard troops. On 10 September several African-American students entered the public high school.
1959 Postmaster General bans D.H. Lawrence's book, Lady Chatterley's Lover
1951 Mozambique becomes an oversea province of Portugal — En Portugal se promulga una ley por la que sus colonias se convierten en territorios de ultramar.
1950 El pintor francés Henri Matisse obtiene el Gran Premio de la Bienal de Venecia.
1949 Harry S. Truman se pronuncia por el rearme en Europa y contra toda reducción de los créditos del Plan Marshall.
1948 El Partido Comunista húngaro absorbe al Socialista.
1947 WW II sugar rationing finally ends in the US
1946 La RDA elige a su primer presidente, Wilhelm Pieck.
1944 D-Day landed forces converge       ^top^
      Five days after the D-Day landing, the five Allied landing groups, made up of some 330'000 troops, link up in Normandy to form a single solid front across northwestern France. On 06 June 1944, after a year of meticulous planning conducted in complete secrecy by a joint Anglo-American staff, the largest combined sea, air, and land military operation in history began on the French coast in the Baie de la Seine. The Allied invasion force included three million men, 13'000 aircraft, 1200 warships, 2700 merchant ships, and 2500 landing craft. There were five Allied landing sites at Normandy, and by the evening of the first day, some 150'000 American, British, and Canadian troops were ashore, and the Allies held about two hundred square kilometers.
      Despite the formidable German coastal defenses, beachheads had been achieved at all five landing locations. At one site — Omaha Beach — German resistance was especially strong, and the Allied position was only secured after hours of bloody fighting by the Americans assigned to it. Over the next five days, the American, British, and Canadian divisions in Normandy took longer to reach their goals than planned, but nevertheless moved steadily forward in all sectors. On June 11, the five landing groups met up, and Operation Overload—the code name for the Allied invasion of northwestern Europe—proceeded as planned.
1943 La aviación aliada ataca Düsseldorf (Alemania).
1943 Britain takes Pantelleria island       ^top^
      After 10 days of bombing runs, Britain lands troops on the Italian island of Pantelleria, off the southern coast of Sicily, in Operation Corkscrew. The Italian garrisons surrenders upon orders from Mussolini, who would later deny the order when the Germans express outrage. This defeat shakes the confidence of many in Mussolini's cabinet, since they had been assured that Pantelleria was impregnable. Britain would continue its collection of Italian islands over the next two days, with the occupation of Lampedusa and Linosa — all in preparation for the Allied invasion of Sicily itself in July.
1942 US and USSR sign Lend-Lease agreement during WW II
1941 Trois cent juifs français, âgés de 14 à 19 ans, sont envoyés à Mauthausen en Autriche afin de "tester" l'efficacité des chambres à gaz. Elles sont très efficace. Il n'y aura aucun survivant.
1940 Britain strikes back at Italy       ^top^
      Britain demonstrates that it will not remain on the defensive, by bombing Italian targets in response to Mussolini's declaration of war on England and France. Having already marked out an offensive strategy in the event of Italian aggression, Britain bombed targets within the cities of Genoa and Turin. Africa was also another theater of conflict, as Italy and Britain were imperial neighbors. Italy had just bombed targets in the British-controlled Suez Canal territory, as well as the British-controlled island of Malta, in the Mediterranean. Britain retaliated with a raid on the Italian military installation in Eritrea. Even the Pacific would see fallout from this new conflict, with an Australian merchant cruiser giving chase to an Italian vessel, which ended up scuttling itself rather than surrendering.
1936 The Presbyterian Church of America (PCA) is organized in Philadelphia. In 1938 the denomination changed its name to the Orthodox Presbyterian Church.
1936 Se presenta al pueblo para su estudio y discusión la nueva Constitución soviética.
1933 Los aviadores españoles Mariano Barberán y Joaquín Collar, con el avión Cuatro Vientos, establecen la marca mundial de vuelo sin escala sobre el mar al atravesar el Atlántico Norte, de Sevilla (España) a Camagüey (Cuba) — 7400 Km en 40 horas y 5 minutos.
1927 Lindbergh is awarded Distinguished Flying Cross       ^top^
      In Washington, D.C., US aviator Charles A. Lindbergh, Jr., the first pilot to accomplish a solo, nonstop flight across the Atlantic Ocean, is presented with the first Distinguished Flying Cross ever awarded. Lindbergh, a young airmail pilot, was a dark horse when he entered a competition with a $25'000 payoff to fly nonstop from New York to Paris. He ordered a small monoplane, configured it to his own design, and christened it the Spirit of St. Louis.
      On 20 May 1927, a rainy morning, he took off from Roosevelt Field on Long Island, New York, his monoplane so loaded down with fuel that it barely cleared the trees at the end of the runway. He flew north and then westward from Newfoundland, Canada. The next afternoon, after flying 5810 km in thirty-three-and-a-half hours, Lindbergh landed at Le Bourget field in Paris, becoming the first pilot to accomplish the nonstop transatlantic crossing.
      Lindbergh’s achievement made him an international celebrity, and US President Calvin Coolidge sent a US Navy cruiser to bring him home. On his return to the United States, he was given a ticker-tape parade in New York City, and on 11 June is given the Distinguished Flying Cross by President Coolidge. Other famous US pilots who received the award include former president George H. Bush, who was awarded the medal for his service during World War II, and astronaut Virgil "Gus" Grissom, who received the decoration after flying one hundred combat missions in the Korean War.
1922 Transatlantic radio fax of a photograph
      The first photograph to be sent across the Atlantic via radio fax is a photo of Pope Pius XI, sent from Rome to Maine. The 17.8-by-24.1 cm photo takes forty minutes to transmit and is published in the New York World this same day.
1920 Republicans nominate Warren G Harding for president
1915 Los ingleses conquistan la colonia alemana de Camerún.
1910 Una Real Orden autoriza en España los signos externos de religiones distintas a la católica.
1905 Penns Railroad debuts fastest train in world (NY-Chicago in 18 hrs)
1901 Cook Islands annexed and proclaimed part of New Zealand.
1873 Francesc Pi y Margall sucede a Estanislao Figueras y Moragas como presidente de la I República Española y ocupa también la cartera de Gobernación.
1864 Battle of Trevilian Station, Virginia begins
1864 Skirmish at Pine Mountain, Georgia
1863 Siege of Port Hudson, Louisiana continues
1863 Siege of Vicksburg, Mississippi continues
1859 Comstock silver lode discovered near Virginia City, Nevada
1823 A propuesta de Antonio Alcalá Galiano, las Cortes españoles declaran inhábil para reinar a Fernando VII y se forma una regencia.
1799 Richard Allen (1760-1831), later to be the first Black bishop in the US, is ordained a deacon of the Methodist Episcopal Church in Philadelphia.
1788 Russian explorer Izmailov arrives at Yakutat Bay, Alaska       ^top^
      Searching for sea otter pelts and other furs, the Russian explorer Gerrasim Grigoriev Izmailov reaches the Alaskan coast, setting his ship in at Yakutat Bay. Although most people in the US think of the exploration of the Far West as an affair that began in the East and proceeded westward, the opposite was true for Russians. In the far northern Pacific, Russia was separated from the North American continent only by the relatively manageable expanse of the Bering Sea. Czar Peter the Great and his successors commissioned journeys east to the coast of Alaska, including the 1741 voyage of Vitus Bering, whose name was given to the narrow strait that separates northern Alaska and Russia. Bering also brought back to Russia reports that sea otter pelts were abundant in the land they called Alaska, a Russian corruption of an Aleut word meaning "peninsula" or "mainland." Russian fur trading companies were formed, and they soon became the semi-official exploratory representatives of the czars.
      By the late 19th century, British, Spanish, and US vessels were also sailing the waters off the coast of Alaska, and Russia became increasingly concerned about protecting its claims to the region. Gerrasim Grigoriev Izmailov joined the Russian effort to explore and claim Alaska in 1776, making a highly successful fur trading and trapping journey that netted a cargo worth some $86'000. Thereafter, he made numerous fur-gathering voyages to Alaska, sailing out of the port of Okhotsk on the Russian East Coast. By the late 1780s, Izmailov had become one of a small number of Russian captains with extensive experience sailing the Alaskan Coast. Eager to advance the Russian claim to Prince William Sound and the Alaskan coast, Izmailov's backers sent him on an exploratory and diplomatic voyage into the region. Izmailov initially reached several islands off the coast where he erected large wooden crosses proclaiming the territory to be the property of Russia. He then proceeded eastward down the Alaskan coastline, finally putting into shore at Yakutat Bay on this day.
      At Yakutat Bay, Izmailov immediately began a peaceful and successful program of fur trading with the Tlingit Indians. He presented the Tlingit Chief Ilkhak with a portrait of Czar Paul, presumably suggesting that the far-off monarch should be viewed as the Tlingit's new ruler. In a rather ineffective attempt to further solidify the Russian claim, Izmailov had two large copper plates marking "the extent of Russia's domain" buried nearby. More a symbolic gesture than an actual assertion of ownership, they were designed to prove Russia had been the first western nation to arrive in the area. True Russian control over the region was not established until fur trading posts and settlements were constructed over the next few decades. After further exploring the Alaskan coast, Izmailov eventually returned to his homeport of Okhotsk, where he is thought to have died in around 1796. Although the Russians continued to consolidate their hold on Alaska during the first half of the 19th century, the claim had become tenuous and expensive to maintain by the 1860s. In 1867, Russia sold the region of Alaska to the United States for $7 million.
1770 Capt Cook runs aground on Australian Great Barrier Reef
1580 Juan de Garay, con algunos oficiales y sesenta voluntarios, funda la ciudad de Trinidad, hoy Buenos Aires.
1496 Cristóbal Colón llega a Cádiz, de regreso de su segundo viaje a América. (
1488 Battle of Sauchieburn, Scotland
1144 Consacration du choeur de la basilique de Saint-Denis       ^top^
     Le choeur de la basilique de Saint-Denis, au nord de Paris, est solennellement consacré le 11 juin 1144 par Suger. Ce fils de serf, conseiller du roi de France et abbé de Saint-Denis, a décidé de reconstruire et embellir son abbaye. Le roi Louis VII le Jeune et sa femme, Aliénor d'Aquitaine, assistent à la consécration, ainsi que tous les grands personnages du royaume. Emerveillés, les évêques regagnent leur diocèse avec le désir de reconstruire leur cathédrale à l'image de Saint-Denis. C'est ainsi qu'un nouveau style architectural succède à l'art roman. Il est appelé «art français», car il naît dans le Bassin parisien, ou encore «art ogival», par référence à l'ogive ou arc brisé. Dans la croisée d'ogives, le poids de la voûte se répartit sur les colonnes des quatre coins.
      Cette technique permet de multiplier les ouvertures dans les murs et d'atteindre de très grandes hauteurs. L'art «ogival» ne se rattache à aucune influence étrangère ou antérieure. Il se signale par la valorisation de la structure (arc brisé, arc-boutant, croisées d'ogives,..) et l'absence de décoration superflue. Les cathédrales sont financées par les dons des fidèles. Elles sont construites par des artisans réunis en corporations. Les maîtres d'ouvrage et les architectes se font représenter au coeur de leur oeuvre. Ainsi, à Saint-Denis, Suger figure sur plusieurs vitraux. Sous la Renaissance, des artistes tels que Raphaël vont tourner en dérision l'art français en le qualifiant d'art «gothique» (digne des Goths).
— 1184 -BC- Greeks finally captured Troy
TO THE TOP
Deaths which occurred on an 11 June:

2003 Tito Massaoud, 35, Soffil Abu Nahez, 29; and passers-by: two women, and the four men: Nasser Hamid, 26; Khalil Hamid, 34; Rami Shatiwi, 28; and Azam Alja'al, 23; in Gaza City's Saja'iya neighborhood, at 18:30 (15:30 UT), by missiles from Israeli helicopters fired at the car of Massaoud, a leader, and Nahez, a militant, of Hamas' Izz-al-Din al-Kassam military wing.
Bus wreck
2003 Haile Abraha Hawki, 56, Eritrean; and Israelis Sgt. Tamar Ben-Eliahu, 20, from Moshav Paran; Ro`i Eliraz, 22, from Mevasseret Zion; Zippora Pesahovitz, 54 from Zur Hadassah; Bat-El Ohana, 21, from Kiryat Atta; Yaniv Obayed, 22, from Herzliya; Zvika Cohen, 40, from the Kiryat Menachem neighborhood in Jerusalem, the following 9 others from Jerusalem: Alexander Kazaris, 77; Malka Rene Sultan, 67; Elsa Cohen, 70; Yaffa Mualem, 65; Alan Bir, 47 (who had immigrated from Cleveland several years earlier); Bertine Tita, 75; Genia Berman, 50; Anna Orgal, 55; Bianca Shahrur, 63; and suicide bomber Abdel Muati Shaban, 18, an Izz-al-Din al-Kassam militant, dressed as a Haredi Jew (because of which he was not checked by the security guard at the bus stop where Shaban had just boarded the bus), at 17:35 (14:35 UT), on Egged bus #14, near the Clal Building on Jaffa Street, close to the intersection with King George Street, in downtown Jerusalem. The bus was on its way from the Beit Hakerem neighborhood to Talpiot. 153 persons are injured, one of whom, from Jerusalem, would die the next day: Zippora Levy, 75, also listed as Miriam Levy, 74 (or Miriam is another Jerusalemite who dies some days later?). [the wrecked bus >]

2002 Teresa Nieves, and her husband, Sgt. 1st Class Rigoberto Nieves, 32, of the 3rd Special Forces Group, near Fort Bragg, North Carolina, who shoots her in the head and then himself. Sergeant Nieves had been from early January to mid-March 2002 in Afghanistan, where his unit was administered the anti-malaria drug mefloquine (“Lariam”), known to produce psychotic side effects. Similar wife murders would be committed at Fort Bragg by Master Sgt. William Wright (29 June 2002; suicide 23 March 2003); Sgt. Cedric Griffin (09 July 2002); and Sgt 1st Class Brandon Floyd (with suicide, 19 July 2002).
2002 A Palestinian boy, age 9, shot by Israeli troops. A 13-year-old Palestinian boy is wounded.
2002 An Israeli girl, age 15, and a suicide bomber, at 19:40 in the small Jamil shwarma restaurant on Sokolov Street, close to the Lev Ha'ir mall, in downtown Hersliya, Israel. Nine persons are injured. There were about 30 persons present. It seems that not all the explosives carried by the bomber exploded.
Yehuda Haim Shoham2002 Eiman Joulani and Anan al-Ashab, Palestinians, are found shot dead in Hebron, West Bank. They were suspected of providing information to the Israelis about the movements of the militia leader Marwan Zalloum, who was killed on 23 April 2002 by fire from an Israeli helicopter. Joulani was shot dead in A-Salame Street, on the exact spot where Zalloum was killed. Al-Ashab was shot outside Hebron University.
2001 Yehuda Haim Shoham, 5-month-old, [< photo >] at the pediatrics intensive care unit of the Hadassah-Ein Kerem hospital in Jerusalem, of injuries received on 06 June from Palestinian stone throwers.
2001 Pierre Eyt, of cancer, cardinal archbishop of Bordeaux, born on 04 June 1934, ordained a priest on 29 June 1961, consecrated a bishop (coadjutor of Bordeaux) on 28 September 1986, succeded retiring Marius Maziers [01 Mar 1915~] as archbishop on 31 May 1989, was made a cardinal on 26 November 1994.
2001 Timothy James McVeigh, 33, by lethal injection, at about 12:10 UT, for Oklahoma City bombing of 19 April 1995, which killed 168 persons, including 19 infants and toddlers. His execution, the first since 1963 under US federal law, had originally been scheduled for 16 May 2001, after he requested that no appeal be made, and he did not request clemency. But on 10 May 2001, the FBI turned over 3135 documents that it ought to have but failed to present at the trial. So, on 11 May, the US Attorney General John Ashcroft postponed the execution. (The news media give this event ludicrous overcoverage going into minute irrelevant details for many days) —// On the Net: Justice Department / Prisons Bureau / Bombing Memorial / Death Penalty links
2001 Armando Borracino, 56, from internal burns suffered on 30 May 2001 as surgeons accidentally set fire to a breathing tube in his throat with a laser they were using to remove a tumor, in Salerno, Italy.
1985 Karen Ann Quinlan, 31, of pneumonia, in a Morris Plains, NJ, nursing home — Born: 29 March 1954 in Scranton, Pennsylvania, the 21-year-old Quinlan had collapsed after swallowing alcohol and tranquilizers at a party in 1975. Doctors saved her life, but she suffered brain damage and lapsed into a "persistent vegetative state." Her family waged a much-publicized legal battle for the right to remove her life support machinery. They succeeded, but Karen kept breathing after the respirator was unplugged. She remained in a coma for almost 10 years her death.
1991 José Luis Martín Descalzo, sacerdote, escritor y periodista español.
1989 José López Rega, político argentino.
1984 Enrico Berlinguer, secretario general del PCI.
1981 Miles de muertos y heridos por un terremoto en Irán.
1970 Frank Laubach, Benton PA, taught reading through phonetics
1970 Some 230 in battle for Kompong Speu.
      A force of 4000 South Vietnamese and 2000 Cambodian soldiers battle 1400 Communist soldiers for control of the provincial capital of Kompong Speu, 50 km southwest of Phnom Penh. At 80 km inside the border, it was the deepest penetration that South Vietnamese forces had made into Cambodia since the incursion began on April 29. The town was captured by the Communists on 13 June, but retaken by Allied forces on June 16. South Vietnamese officials reported that 183 enemy soldiers were killed, while 4 of their own died and 22 were wounded during the fighting. Civilian casualties in Kompong Speu were estimated at 40 to 50 killed.
1970 Camille Bombois, French painter born on 03 February 1883
1969 John L Lewis, 89, formed Congress of Industrial Organizations
1963 Quang Duc Buddhist monk, immolates himself on a street in Saigon, in protest
      Buddhist monk Quang Duc publicly burns himself to death in a plea for President Ngo Dinh Diem to show "charity and compassion" to all religions. Diem, a Catholic who had been oppressing the Buddhist majority, remained stubborn despite continued Buddhist protests and repeated US requests to liberalize his government's policies. More Buddhist monks immolated themselves during ensuing weeks. Madame Nhu, the president's sister-in-law, referred to the burnings as "barbecues" and offered to supply matches. In November 1963, South Vietnamese military officers assassinated Diem and his brother during a coup.
1956 Sir Frank William Brangwyn, Welsh painter born on 13 May 1867. His students included Karl Albert Buehr. — MORE ON BRANGWYN AT ART “4” JUNE with links to images.
1955: 85 espectadores del circuito de Le Mans cuando un automóvil sale fuera de la pista, tras chocar con otro. Otros 200 son heridos.
1934 Friedrich Wilhelm Franz Meyer, German mathematician born on 02 September 1934. He studied algebraic geometry, algebraic curves and invariant theory.
1907 Charles Wilda, Austrian artist born on 20 December 1854.
1903 King Alexander, born on 14 August 1876 (of the Obrenovic dynasty of Serbia, rivals of the Karadjordjevic dynasty) and Queen Draga [born in 1866], who had been his mistress, and some members of the court, assassinated by a mob which invaded the palace, aided by nationalist officers. They throw their naked bodies into the park below, where the populace cheers and waves flags.
1903 Nikolay Vasilievich Bugaev, Russian mathematician and philosopher of mathematics born on 14 September 1837.
1882 Ludwig Mecklenburg, German artist born on 15 September 1820.
^ 1864 Battle at Trevilian Station
     A Confederate cavalry intercepts General Phillip Sheridan's Union cavalry as it seeks to destroy a rail line. A two-day battle ensued in which the Confederates drove off the Yankees with minimal damage to a precious supply line. Shortly after the Battle of Cold Harbor earlier in the month, Union General Ulysses S. Grant dispatched Sheridan, his cavalry commander, to ride towards Charlottesville and cut the Virginia Central Railroad. The line was supplying Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia, which was engaged in a life-or-death struggle with Grant's Army of the Potomac around Richmond and Petersburg. Sheridan swung north around Richmond and headed toward Charlottesville, 100 km northwest of Richmond.
      General Wade Hampton, commander of the Confederate cavalry since General J.E.B. Stuart had died the previous month, heard of Sheridan's move and set out to intercept the Yankees. On the morning of June 11, Union General George Custer's men attacked Hampton's supply train near Trevilian Station. Although they scored an initial success, Custer soon found himself almost completely surrounded by Rebel cavalry. Custer formed his men into a triangle and made several counterattacks before Sheridan came to his rescue in the late afternoon, taking 500 Southern prisoners in the process. The struggle continued the next day. With his ammunition running low and his cavalry dangerously far from its supply line, Sheridan eventually withdrew his force and returned to the Army of the Potomac. The Yankees tore up about 8 km of rail line, but the damage was relatively light for the high number of casualties. Sheridan lost 735 men compared to nearly 1000 for Hampton. But the Confederates had driven off the Yankees and minimized damage to the railroad.
1859 Klemens Metternich-Winneburg, estadista austríaco.
1847 Sir John Franklin       ^top^
      After commissioning three unsuccessful search expeditions, the British Admiralty posted a £20'000 reward for anyone who could ascertain the fate of the crewmen of the HMS Erebus and Terror, who had sailed from England in May 1845 to navigate through the Arctic and find the elusive Northwest passage. Success was anticipated with Sir John Franklin commanding well-equipped crews and ships, but by 1847, the British Admiralty had received no reports of Franklin.
      Subsequent expeditions found evidence of the Franklin Expedition. Three graves dug into the permafrost were discovered in 1850, their headstones dated 1846. A written record was found in 1859, indicating that Franklin died on 11 June 1847, and that Erebus and Terror were abandoned in April 1848. The crews' deaths have been attributed to either scurvy or lead poisoning originating from the solder on food tins. Both ships and the remains of most of the 129 crewmen have never been found.
1842 Jean-Victor Bertin, French painter and lithographer born on 20 March 1767.
1837 Jean-François Garneray, French artist born in 1755.
1818 Pieter Joseph Sauvage, Flemish artist born on 19 January 1744.
1794 Christian Friedrich Reinhold Liszeweski, German artist born in 1725.
Condamnés à mort par la Révolution: ^top^
1794 (23 prairial an II):
DELTOMBE Louis François, domicilié au Quesnoy (Nord), comme émigré, par le tribunal criminel dudit département.
Par la commission militaire séante à Bordeaux:
BARTOUIL Pierre, (dit Taillac), 66 ans, ex-noble, cultivateur, né et domicilié à Nérac (Lot et Garonne), comme conspirateurp
LABADIE André, 32 ans; LABADIE Pierre Marie, 36 ans; et LABADIE Bernard, 38 ans, négociants, nés et domiciliés à Bordeaux (Gironde), comme convaincus d'avoir manifesté le mépris le plus décidé pour les assignats, calomnié le peuple qui était indigné contre les accapareurs, et lorsqu'il s'est montré jaloux de conserver la liberté conquise au prix de son sang.
Domiciliés dans le département de la Vienne, par le tribunal criminel dudit département:
BRINDEAU Louis Julien, domicilié à Messais, canton de Loudun, comme fonctionnaire public infidèle
      ... domiciliés à Jaunay, comme accapareurs:
DUCHILLEAU Françoise, femme Chateignier, ex noble — GENDRE Victoire, femme de chambre — PHILIPPONNET François.
Domiciliés à Guegon, département du Morbihan, par le tribunal criminel dudit département:
CAREL Bartrand, ex vicaire, comme réfractaire à la loi — JEAN Anne, femme Lemaitre, comme receleuse de prêtres réfractaires.
Par la commission militaire séante à Laval, comme brigands de la Vendée:
COTTEREAU Pierre (dit Chouan), couvreur, domicilié à St Ouen (Mayenne) — FOURMY René, taupier, domicilié à Quelaines (Mayenne et Loire).
Par le tribunal révolutionnaire de Paris:
GUERIN Gabriel, (dit Lucas), tailleur et fournisseur d'habits, 41 ans, né à Châteauroux, domicilié à Indreville (Indre), comme fournisseur infidèle.
HERBERT Bon Jacques René, entrepreneur des bois de chauffage de l’armée, 23 ans né et domicilié à Paris, comme convaincu d’infidélité dans la fourniture des bois de chauffage.
LAMENDIN Lambert, marchand de chevaux, et fournisseur de bois pour l'armée, 38 ans, né à Confui (Nord), domicilié à Maubeuge, même département, comme fournisseur infidèle.
PERREIN Pierre Jacques, 48 ans, prétendant s'appeler (Elzéard) juge du district d'Aix, né et domicilié, à Aix (Bouches du Rhône), comme conspirateur et l'un des principaux chefs de la faction contre-révolutionnaire des Chiffonistes.
      ... comme conspirateurs:
            ... nés, et domiciliés à Cusset, département de l'Allier:
TEYRAS Jeanne Daniel, femme Chaput, 52 ans. — CHAPUT Cosme Marie, (dit Dubost), 24 ans — CHAPUT Claude Gilbert, (dit Dubost de Champcourt), 26 ans — CHAPUT Etienne Hubert Bonaventure (dit Dubost), 54 ans, commissaire du tyran roi, près le tribunal du district de Cusset
            ... domiciliés dans le département de l'Ariège:
RIGAL Louis (dit Moigné), laboureur, 33 ans, natif de Pamiers, domicilié à Jean-de-Pargat, comme complice des trames liberticides dont le foyer était dans la commune de Pamiers.
                  ... domiciliés à Foix:
LARNE Joseph, ci-devant lieutenant particulier — LARNE Jean Paul, avoué au tribunal du district de Tarascon.
                       ... et nés à Pamiers (Ariège):
CASTEL Jean Noël, négociant, 37 ans — DARMAING J. P. Jérôme, 48 ans
LARUE Joseph, 42 ans, ex avoué au tribunal du district de Tarascon, comme complice d'une conspiration dans la commune de Pamiers, à l'effet de se faire porter aux places par le peuple.
                  ... domiciliés et nés à Pamiers:
DARMAING François, (dit Dangery), 61 ans, avocat du ci-devant roi, en ladite Sénéchaussée, administrateur du département de l'Ariége.
                         ... comme complices des trames liberticides, dont le foyer était dans la commune de Pamiers:
MONTSIRBENT Jean, greffier du tribunal criminel du département de l'Ariège, 49 ans. — MONTSIRBENT Jean Pierre, apothicaire, 38 ans.
PALMADE Jean Pierre (dit Fraxime), 63 ans, étaleur, ci-devant lieutenant particulier de la sénéchaussée de Pamiers. — RIGAL Jean Joseph, cultivateur, 36 ans.
            ... domiciliés à Paris:
COURTIN Denys
, 58 ans, né à Ste-Jame (Cher), brigadier de gendarmerie — CHARON Pierre Joseph — JANIN Nicolas, gagne-dernier, 72 ans, né à Dijon (Côte-d'Or)
1793:

BEGUINET Louis, tapissier, 32 ans, né et domicilié à Paris, comme embaucheur pour la Vendée,par le tribunal révolutionnaire de Paris.
1757 Matthäus Arents Terwesten, Dutch artist born on 23 February 1670.
1722 Abraham Pieterszoon van Calraet (or Kalraat, Kalraet) (buried on 12 June 1722), Dordrecht Dutch painter baptized as an infant on 12 October 1642. — MORE ON CALRAET AT ART “4” JUNE with links to images.
1560 María de Lorena, reina de Escocia.
1487 James III, rey de Escocia.
Births which occurred on a June 11:
1947 Henry G Cisneros (Mayor-D-San Antonio, Secretary of HUD)
1937 David Bryant Mumford, English mathematician.
1932 Francisco Alberto Caamaño Deño, militar y político dominicano.
1925 William Styron, in Newport News, Virginia.       ^top^
     He would be the author of Sophie's Choice and other critically acclaimed novels. 
     Growing up in the segregated south troubled Styron, whose father's family had once owned slaves. An only child, Styron became a voracious reader and skipped ahead in school. He went to Davidson College in North Carolina but nearly flunked out before he joined the Marines. He was sent to the Pacific for the invasion of Japan. When he returned, he finished his education at Duke University in North Carolina, where he studied writing. He moved to New York, hoping to become a writer.
      He finished his first novel, Lie Down in Darkness, about a woman struggling against insanity and suicidal urges, but was called back to the Marines to serve in the Korean War before the book's publication in 1951. His next book, The Long March (1956), about a brutal march forced on Marine recruits in training, became a critical and financial success. He won a major award, the Prix de Rome, that allowed him to travel abroad and write.
      In Rome, he met his future wife, Rose Burgunder, and in Paris he helped found the Paris Review. He made friends with Truman Capote, Norman Mailer, James Baldwin, and other writers. His novel Set This House on Fire (1960) was attacked by US critics but praised abroad. In 1967, he explored his interest in race issues with The Confessions of Nat Turner (1967), written in the voice of Nat Turner, leader of a failed slave uprising. Some black writers attacked Styron, claiming a white writer could not accurately portray the psychology of a black slave. The book won the Pulitzer Prize in 1968. His bestselling novel Sophie's Choice, dealing with the devastating aftermath of the Holocaust, was made into an award-winning movie in 1982. Styron struggled with severe clinical depression and suicidal urges, which he described in his memoir Darkness Visible: A Memoir of Madness (1990).
1918 Nelson Mandela civil right activist in South Africa, first president of South Africa elected under universal suffrage.
1914 Henry G Cisneros (Mayor-San Antonio, Secretary of Housing and Urban Development, CEO of Univision Communications)
1914 Gregorio López Raimundo, dirigente comunista español.
1912 William Baziotes, US Abstract Expressionist painter in a biomorphic style influenced by Surrealism. He died on 04 June 1963. — MORE ON BAZIOTES AT ART “4” JUNE with links to images.
1911 Manuel Ballesteros Gaibrois, historiador y antropólogo español.
1910 Jacques-Yves Cousteau France, (marine explorer aboard Calypso: PBS-TV producer; coinventor of Aqua-Lung). He died on 25 June 1997.
1907 Paul Mellon philanthropist/horse breeder (1964 Gold Baton)
1902 (11 July?) Ernst Wilhelm Nay, German artist who died in 1968.MEHR ÜBER NAY AN ART “4” JUNE mit links zu bilder.
1899 Yasunari Kawabata, Japanese 1968-Nobel-Prize winning novelist who died on 16 April 1972.
1895 Nikolai A Bulganin Gorki Russia, premier of USSR (1955-8)
1894 Ricardo Rendon Bravo, caricaturista colombiano.
1880 Jeannette Rankin, first woman elected to US Congress (from Montana). She died on 18 May 1973.
1867 Charles Fabry found ozone layer in upper atmosphere
1864 Richard Strauss, München, Germany, Romantic composer: Also Sprach Zarathustra, Don Quixote, Till Eulenspiegel... He died on 08 September 1949.
1838 Mariano Fortuny y Marsal (or: y Carbo?), Spanish painter who died on 21 November 1874. — MORE ON FORTUNY AT ART “4” JUNE with links to images.
1830 Miguel Iglesias, militar y hacendado que destacó en la guerra de Perú con Chile.
1818 Alexander Bain, filósofo británico.
1812 Wouter Verschuur, Dutch artist who died on 04 July 1874. — An Inn
1787 Manuel Dorrego, militar y político argentino.
1776 John Constable, English Romantic painter specialized in Landscapes, who died on 31 March 1837. — MORE ON CONSTABLE AT ART “4” JUNE with links to images.
1588 George Wither, English poet and Puritan pamphleteer who died on 02 May 1667.
1572 Benjamin Jonson, English dramatist, lyric poet, and literary critic, who died on 06 August 1637. He is regarded as the second most important English dramatist (after Shakespeare [26 Apr 1564 – 23 Apr 1616]) of the 1558-1603-1625 reigns of Elizabeth I [07 Sep 1533 – 24 Mar 1603] and James I [19 Jun 1566 – 27 Mar 1625]. Among his major plays are the comedies Every Man in His Humour (1598), Volpone (1606), The Alchemist (1610), and Bartholomew Fair (1614).
— Jonson was born two months after his father died. His stepfather was a bricklayer, but by good fortune the boy was able to attend Westminster School. His formal education, however, ended early, and he at first followed his stepfather's trade, then fought with some success with the English forces in the Netherlands. On returning to England, he became an actor and playwright, experiencing the life of a strolling player. He apparently played the leading role of Hieronimo in The Spanish Tragedy of Thomas Kyd. By 1597 Jonson was writing plays for Philip Henslowe [1550 – 06 Jan 1616], the leading impresario for the public theater. With one exception (The Case Is Altered), these early plays are known, if at all, only by their titles. Jonson apparently wrote tragedies as well as comedies in these years, but his extant writings include only two tragedies, Sejanus (1603) and Catiline (1611).
     In 1598 there was an abrupt change in Jonson's status, when Every Man in His Humour was successfully presented by the Lord Chamberlain's theatrical company (a legend has it that Shakespeare himself recommended it to them), and his reputation was established. In this play Jonson tried to bring the spirit and manner of Latin comedy to the English popular stage by presenting the story of a young man with an eye for a girl, who has difficulty with a phlegmatic father, is dependent on a clever servant, and is ultimately successful—in fact, the standard plot of the Latin dramatist Plautus. But at the same time Jonson sought to embody in four of the main characters the four “humors” of medieval and Renaissance medicine (choler, melancholy, phlegm, and blood) which were thought to determine human physical and mental makeup.
     
free web hosting | free hosting | Web Hosting | Free Website Submission | shopping cart | php hosting
That same year Jonson killed a fellow actor in a duel, and, though he escaped capital punishment by pleading “benefit of clergy” (the ability to read from the Latin Bible), he could not escape branding. During his brief imprisonment over the affair he became a Roman Catholic.
      Following the success of Every Man in His Humour, the same theatrical company acted Jonson's Every Man Out of His Humour (1599), which was even more ambitious. It was the longest play ever written for the Elizabethan public theater, and it strove to provide an equivalent of the Greek comedy of Aristophanes; “induction,” or “prelude,” and regular between-act comment explicated the author's views on what the drama should be. The play, however, proved a disaster, and Jonson had to look elsewhere for a theater to present his work. The obvious place was the “private” theaters, in which only young boys acted (see children's company). The high price of admission they charged meant a select audience, and they were willing to try strong satire and formal experiment; for them Jonson wrote Cynthia's Revels (1600) and Poetaster (1601). Even in these, however, there is the paradox of contempt for human behavior hand in hand with a longing for human order.
      It appears that Jonson won royal attention by his Entertainment at Althorpe, performed before James I's queen as she journeyed down from Scotland in 1603, and in 1605 The Masque of Blackness was presented at court. The “masque” was a quasi-dramatic entertainment, primarily providing a pretense for a group of strangers to dance and sing before an audience of guests and attendants in a royal court or nobleman's house. This elementary pattern was much elaborated during the reign of James I, when the architect Inigo Jones [15 Jul 1573 – 21 Jun 1652] provided increasingly magnificent costumes and scenic effects for masques at court. The few spoken words that the masque had demanded in Elizabethan days expanded into a “text” of a few hundred lines and a number of set songs. Thus the author became important as well as the designer: he was to provide not only the necessary words but also a special “allegorical” meaning underlying the whole entertainment. It was Jonson, in collaboration with Jones, who gave the Jacobean masque its characteristic shape and style. He did this primarily by introducing the suggestion of a “dramatic” action. It was thus the poet who provided the informing idea and dictated the fashion of the whole night's assembly.
      Jonson's early masques were clearly successful, for during the following years he was repeatedly called upon to function as poet at court. Among his masques were Hymenaei (1606), Hue and Cry After Cupid (1608), The Masque of Beauty (1608), and The Masque of Queens (1609). In his masques Jonson was fertile in inventing new motives for the arrival of the strangers. But this was not enough: he also invented the “antimasque,” which preceded the masque proper and which featured grotesques or comics who were primarily actors rather than dancers or musicians.
      Important though Jonson was at the court in Whitehall, it was undoubtedly Jones's contributions that caused the most stir. That tension should arise between the two men was inevitable, and eventually friction led to a complete break: Jonson wrote the Twelfth Night masque for the court in 1625 but then had to wait five years before the court again asked for his services.
     In 1606 Jonson and his wife (whom he had married in 1594) were brought before the consistory court in London to explain their lack of participation in the Anglican church. He denied that his wife was guilty but admitted that his own religious opinions held him aloof from attendance. The matter was patched up through his agreement to confer with learned men, who might persuade him if they could. Apparently it took six years for him to decide to conform. For some time before this he and his wife had lived apart, Jonson taking refuge in turn with his patrons Sir Robert Townshend and Esmé Stuart, Lord Aubigny.
      During this period, nevertheless, he made a mark second only to Shakespeare's in the public theater. His comedies Volpone; or, the Foxe (1606) and The Alchemist (1610) were among the most popular and esteemed plays of the time. Each exhibited man's folly in his pursuit of gold. Set respectively in Italy and London, they demonstrate Jonson's enthusiasm both for the typical Renaissance setting and for his own town on Europe's fringe. Both plays are eloquent and compact, sharp-tongued and controlled. The comedies Epicoene (1609) and Bartholomew Fair (1614) were also successful.
      Jonson went on a walking tour in 1618–1819, which took him to Scotland. During the visit the city of Edinburgh made him an honorary burgess and guild brother. On his return to England he received an honorary Master of Arts degree from Oxford University, a most signal honor in his time. Jonson's life was a life of talk as well as of writing. He engaged in “wit-combats” with Shakespeare, and, first at the Mermaid Tavern and then at the Devil Tavern, Jonson reigned supreme. It was a young man's ultimate honor to be regarded as a “son of Ben.”
      In 1623 his personal library was destroyed by fire. By this time his services were seldom called on for the entertainment of Charles I's court, and his last plays failed to please. In 1628 he suffered what was apparently a stroke and, as a result, was confined to his room and chair, ultimately to his bed. That same year he was made city chronologer (thus theoretically responsible for the city's pageants), though in 1634 his salary for the post was made into a pension. Jonson died in 1637 and was buried in Westminster Abbey. The first folio edition of his works had appeared in 1616; posthumously, in a second Jonson folio (1640), appeared Timber: or, Discoveries, a series of observations on life and letters. Here Jonson held forth on the nature of poetry and drama and paid his final tribute to Shakespeare: in spite of acknowledging a belief that his great contemporary was, on occasion, “full of wind” (sufflaminandus erat) he declared that “I loved the man, and do honor his memory, on this side idolatry, as much as any.”
      Ben Jonson was a man of contraries. For “twelve years a papist,” he was also, in fact though not in title, Protestant England's first poet laureate. His major comedies express a strong distaste for the world in which he lived and a delight in exposing its follies and vices. A gifted lyric poet, he wrote two of his most successful plays entirely in prose, an unusual mode of composition in his time. Though often an angry and stubborn man, no one had more disciples than he. He was easily the most learned dramatist of his time, and he was also a master of theatrical plot, language, and characterization. It is a measure of his reputation that his dramatic works were the first to be published in folio (the term, in effect, means the “collected works”) and that his plays held their place on the stage until the period of the Restoration. Later they fell into neglect, though The Alchemist was revived during the 18th century, and in the mid-20th century several came back into favor: Volpone, The Alchemist, and Bartholomew Fair especially have been staged with striking success.
      Jonson's chief plays are still very good theater. His insistence on putting classical theory into practice in them has reinforced rather than weakened the effect of his gift of lively dialogue, robust characterization, and intricate, controlled plotting. In each of them he maneuvers a large cast of vital personages, all consistently differentiated from one another. Jonson's plots are skillfully put together; incident develops out of incident in a consistent chain of cause and effect, taking into account the respective natures of the personages involved and proceeding confidently through a twisting, turning action that is full of surprises without relying on coincidence or chance. Sometimes Jonson's comedy derives from the dialogue, especially when it is based on his observation of contemporary tricks of speech. Butthere are also superbly ludicrous situations, often hardly removed from practical joke.
      Jonson is renowned for his method of concentrating on a selected side, or on selected sides, of a character, showing how they dominate the personality. This is to some extent a natural outcome of his classical conception of art, but it also stems from his clear, shrewd observation of people. In Jonson's plays both eccentricity and normal behavior are derived from a dominating characteristic, so that the result is a live, truthfully conceived personage in whom the ruling passion traces itself plainly. The later plays, for example, have characters whose behavior is dominated by one psychological idiosyncrasy. But Jonson did not deal exclusively in “humors.” In some of his plays (notably Every Man in His Humour), the stock types of Latin comedy contributed as much as the humors theory did. What the theory provided for him and for his contemporaries was a convenient mode of distinguishing among human beings. The distinctions so made could be based on the “humors,” on Latin comic types, or, as in Volpone, in the assimilation of humans to different members of the animal kingdom. The characters Volpone, Mosca, Sir Epicure Mammon, Face, Subtle, Dol Common, Overdo, and Ursula are not simply “humors”; they are glorious type figures, so vitally rendered as to take on a being that transcends the type. This method was one of simplification, of typification, and yet also of vitalization.
      The Restoration dramatists' use of type names for their characters (Cockwood, Witwoud, Petulant, Pinchwife, and so on) was a harking back to Jonson, and similarly in the 18th century, with such characters as Peachum, Lumpkin, Candour, and Languish. And though, as the 18th century proceeded, comic dramatists increasingly used names quite arbitrarily, the idea of the Jonsonian “type” or “humor” was always at the root of their imagining. Jonson thus exerted a great influence on the playwrights who immediately followed him. In the late Jacobean and Caroline years, it was he, Shakespeare, and Francis Beaumont and John Fletcher who provided all the models. But it was he, and he alone, who gave the essential impulse to dramatic characterization in comedy of the Restoration and also in the 18th and 19th centuries.

JONSON ONLINE:
  • The Alchemist
  • Bartholomew Fair
  • Catiline
  • Cynthia's Revels
  • Epicoene
  • Every Man in his Humour
  • The New Inn
  • Sejanus
  • Timber
  • Selected works and commentary
  • Volpone
  • Volpone
  • Volpone, or, The Foxe: A Comoedie Acted in the Yeere 1605 (page images)
  • 1656 Charles René Reyneau, French mathematician who died on 24 February 1728. Author of Analyse démontrée (1708).
    Holidays Hawaii : King Kamehameha I Day (1737-1819) / Nepal : King's Birthday / US : National Impressionists Day / Massachusett : Children's Day ( Sunday ) / Paraguay : Chaco Peace Day (1935) ( Sunday )

    Religious Observances RC, Ang, Luth, Cong : St Barnabas, apostle / Nuestra Señora de la Capilla; Santos Bernabé, Félix, Fortunato y Remberto. / Saint Barnabé: Juif chypriote, Barnabé figure parmi les premiers apôtres du Christ. Il accompagne Paul dans son premier voyage en Asie mineure puis il part à Chypre où il est lapidé. Barnabé a convaincu ses condisciples de ne pas imposer les rituels juifs tels que la circoncision aux convertis d'origine non juive.

    Thought for the day: “Just because he's on the road, it doesn't mean his mind is.”
    TO THE TOP
    PLEASE CLICK HERE TO WRITE TO “HISTORY 4 2DAY”
    http://www.safran-arts.com/42day/history/h4jun/h4jun11.html
    http://h42day.0catch.com/history/h4jun/h4jun11.html
    http://www.geocities.com/hills4526/history/h4jun/h4jun11.html
    updated Thursday 10-Jun-2004 15:47 UT
    safe site
    site safe for children safe site